Rock gardens have existed for years, first appearing in the British aisles and designed to mimic an alpine landscape. As people learned to care for the alpine plants typical of rock gardens they became more popular.
Today, rock gardens exist across the world in a variety of styles. Many still mimic alpine landscapes, but you can find gardens of all sorts with unique rock sculptures, landscaping timbers and decorations celebrating various regions of the world.
If you want to design a rock garden, look no further. I’ve put together several ideas, resources, and tips for creating a rock garden in your very own home.
Rocks can be the center of attention in a rock garden, or they can be part of the design helping to emphasize your plants.
How Do You Create A Rock Garden?
Designing Your Garden
The North American Rock Gardening Society defines rock gardens as: “Gardens in which rocks and plants appropriate to them are the chief landscape elements.”
A rock garden can inspire many different designs. Your design is affected by the amount and size of rocks you choose, the plants you add, and the way you arrange the rocks around the garden.
In a rock garden, the rocks and plants should interact and balance each other. In order to achieve this, it helps to first get an idea of what style you want. Here are some ideas:
Your rock garden can be filled with plants and trees–or the rocks themselves can be the focus.
In a minimalist rock garden, the rocks are the center of attention. For this look, you want to find large rocks. You can set them around the garden or stack them together to create a rustic stone tower.
Around the rocks, you want a solid color. You can create this look by putting down gravel, as in the above picture, or you can use sand or grass to achieve a similar effect.
Remember, for the minimalist rock garden, less is more. Limit the rocks and rock formations and use larger rocks rather than more rocks to fill the space. If you include plants, you want short plants that aren’t too flashy or colorful.
Moss and water can make a rock garden feel like a fairyland.
Another popular style of rock garden is a water garden. If you already have a body of water nearby, this look will be easy to perfect. If not, you can add a pond to your yard or use fountains to bring in more water.
To compliment the water, you’ll want to incorporate various kinds of moss into your garden. Moss can be difficult to care for, so helping it grow might take a bit of trial and error, but I promise it’s worth it.
A water rock garden will feel especially serene and calm. You’ll want an element of flowing water so the soundscape enhances the landscape. Make sure to include some dry rocks for seating and plenty of rocks for the water to run over and around.
Red rocks can transform any garden into a hauntingly beautiful desert.
Desert style rock gardens are increasingly popular and surprisingly easy to achieve. Cacti are one of the easiest plants and don’t need a lot of care. For a desert rock garden, try using as many different species of cactus as possible to create more variety.
Compliment your cacti with bright red rocks such as iodized sandstone. For a desert garden, rock formations are your friend. Try balancing rocks to create unique towers, arches, and shapes.
Because rock formations may be less resilient and cacti are filled with thorns, a desert rock garden should have a clear pathway. Create gravel or dirt pathways lined with succulents or pebbles to show guests where to walk safely.
A rock garden can be a place of reflection and meditation.
There are many definitions and uses of the word zen. From its roots in Buddhism, zen has come to encompass the practice of meditation. A zen rock garden is all about being in the present moment and finding inner calm and peace.
For a rock garden that encourages zen, you want plenty of seating options, minimalist designs, and sculptures to focus your mind on. Running water can also be useful in a zen garden as an element of relaxation.
You can complement grey stones with bright green plants for a nature-filled garden that isn’t overwhelming. A zen garden is also the perfect place to plant bamboo and create a secret forest pathway where you can escape the distractions of daily life.
Succulents are easy to care for and can survive in harsh conditions.
When creating a rock garden, you first need to ask yourself whether or not you want plants. Maybe you want a minimalistic rock garden with nothing but rocks. If you do want plants in your garden, you’ll need to take some time planning which plants you’ll get and where you’ll put them.
For a good rock garden, you want to purchase plants that naturally grow in the same environment. If you try to mix alpine grass with jungle flowers, it’ll be much more difficult to keep your plants alive, and your garden won’t feel coherent.
Instead, your theme should determine your plants. Choose an ecosystem and stick to it. It can be helpful to mimic a specific location you love. Do some research on what plants are native to that area–then plant those in your rock garden.
Choosing The Right Soil
For a healthy rock garden, every element counts.
Choosing an ecosystem to copy in your rock garden is helpful for selecting plants, but it’s also helpful for taking care of those plants. Different plants may need different nutrients and different amounts of moisture.
Soil for a rock garden is typically a combination of gravel, topsoil, and peat moss. However, the proportions might change depending on which plants you’ve included in your garden. The soil and plants you choose may also be affected by how much shade you have outside and how much rain you get throughout the year.
If you live in a rainy area, you will need soil with good drainage. Desert-themed rock gardens may need soil that has more sand or gravel, while many flowers require more topsoil.
Rocks can be found in all shapes and sizes. Some are perfect places to sit while others are interesting structures to admire.
Of course, for a rock garden you don’t just need plants. You need rocks as well. You can start by incorporating any large rocks already in your garden, but you’ll probably need to bring in rocks from the outside.
If you aren’t too picky about which rocks you want to use, you can often find large stones at construction and work sites. Many times you’ll be able to get rocks for free at these sites, but make sure to get permission before taking anything!
Another way to find rocks is to talk with farmers and road workers who may be glad to pass along some of the rocks they’ve moved.
If you’re looking for specific rocks or don’t find what you want for free, you can go to a quarry to purchase the exact rock you’re looking for. You may also be able to find rocks at your local landscape and gardening store.
Creating Your Garden
Fill the Space
A rock garden can be as large, or small, as you want.
You may be operating under the excuse that you can’t build a rock garden because your lawn is too small. But a rock garden doesn’t need to be huge. In fact, you can even create a miniature rock garden in a bowl or pot.
For smaller gardens, the details become extra important. You want to make your rock placement look intentional. Consider adding more towers and structures to draw the eye toward the rocks in your garden.
For larger gardens, paths are important. You want to guide your visitor through the garden. A focal point can also be a great way to bring together a large garden. If there is a central element or a main sculpture, the garden will feel connected around that element.
Direct the visitor through the space but don’t make them feel constrained.
Odds are, you don’t want your visitor to feel trapped when they walk through your garden. You want to afford freedom to wander and roam, while also providing some gentle guidance. People often feel more relaxed when they don’t need to make too many decisions.
Create a peaceful environment by adding a few pathways along your garden that lead to a focal point or circle through the space. This way you can wander without having to consciously think about where you’re going. You can let your mind wander or meditate as you follow the paths.
Building pathways is also an aesthetic choice. You can use large, flat stones as stepping stones through the garden or over a stream. You can also line a path with small pebbles and use gravel or packed earth for the path itself.
Personalizing Your Rock Garden
Figurines and Statues
Tiny figurines can turn your garden into a scavenger hunt or a game of I Spy.
One way to bring personality into your garden is to add small figurines or sculptures. In incorporating art to the garden, you can express your individuality and change the tone of the garden.
If your garden is inspired by a specific location, you can bring in elements of the culture from that part of the world. Find traditional art from that region of the world and find ways to incorporate it into the garden.
You can bring in one or two large sculptures or hide small art pieces around the garden to create a playful space where visitors are always pleasantly surprised by these hidden treasures.
Involve the Family
Painting rocks is a fun project and can bring some individuality to your garden.
If you have children, you can let them participate in the creation of the garden by painting rocks. You don’t want every rock in the garden to be painted and bright, but a few colorful rocks hidden among the flowers can truly elevate your garden and make it feel like the family’s space.
You can paint these rocks to match the theme of the garden, or you can paint them solid colors and use them to bring more color to the garden. Painted rocks work great for lining pathways.
Another way to use painted rocks is to turn them into markers. Paint on the names of the plants in your garden and place each rock in front of its respective plant. You could even use flat stones as information tablets and write details of the region that inspired your garden.
Add A Splash Of Color
Turquoise is an excellent choice for a splash of color to contrast the rocks in your garden.
Another way to personalize your garden is to incorporate a central color and spread it across the garden. This works especially well if you have a garden with few plants. Choose one principal color and add it anywhere you can in the garden.
You can add color through flowers, painted rocks, or colorful figurines and statues. You don’t need everything to be this color, just elements scattered across the garden to create a sense of cohesion.
Now that I’ve given you some ideas, you should be able to create a plan for your rock garden. No matter how small or large your garden, you can choose a theme, select the perfect plants and pair them with the soil they need, and decorate your garden with rocks.
Be sure to add some personalized touches so your garden feels uniquely yours. After all, this is your garden and there are no hard and fast rules.